"My proposal is to make the encouragement of Chinese settlements of Africa a part of our national policy, in the belief that the Chinese immigrants would not only maintain their position, but that they would multiply and their descendants supplant the inferior Negro race,' wrote Galton.I realised that Sir Francis Galton's vision did come true in one place: Singapore!
'I should expect that the African seaboard, now sparsely occupied by lazy, palavering savages, might in a few years be tenanted by industrious, order-loving Chinese, living either as a semidetached dependency of China, or else in perfect freedom under their own law."
The British did manage, by design or by accident, to replace the indigenous Malay population with the Chinese, who have also replaced the British as the new rulers of Singapore. [Before anyone accuses me of racism against the Chinese, let me declare that I am ethnic Chinese, but one must always speak the truth.]
The entry on Wikipedia notes: In January 1819, Singapore had about 880 Malays and aboriginal tribes and about 20 to 30 Chinese. In 1821, it was estimated that there were nearly 3,000 Malays and more than 1,000 Chinese.
In 2006, the population of Singapore was 4.48 million in 2006. Of this group of about 3.6 million Singapore citizens and permanent residents, Chinese form 75.2%, Malays form 13.6%, Indians form 8.8%, while Eurasians and other groups form 2.4%.
No wonder then some people from mainland China consider Singapore to be China's southern-most province (and according to reports from my friends, they are not far wrong, given the number of Chinese nationals who now work and live in Singapore).
One of my good friends, Leon, who is Singaporean of Ceylonese (Sri Lankan) descent, told me how his Mandarin teacher, a woman from China, disagreed when he said he is Singaporean. She did not believe an ethnic Ceylonese could be Singaporean.
I am not sure if China (I mean the mainland, not Hong Kong) grants foreigners citizenship. The stated policy is yes, but the foreigner must:
1. have close relatives who are Chinese nationals;
2. have settled in a part of China; or
3. have other legitimate reasons for applying for citizenship.
Singapore and China do not allow dual citizenship. I have heard of Singaporeans who, in order to purchase land in Cambodia, have secretly taken on Cambodian citizenship, while not renouncing their Singapore one. The Chinese actress Gong Li caused a furore, with Chinese citizens calling her "Traitor. Shameless. Fake foreigner" when she switched to a Singapore citizenship in November.